剑桥学生英语语法

出版时间:2008-10  出版社:外语教学与研究出版社,剑桥大学出版社  作者:Rodney Huddleston,Geoffrey K. Pullum  页数:312  
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前言

  This book is an inuoductory textbook on modem Standard English grammar,intended mainly for undergraduates,in English departments and schools of educa-tion as well as linguistics departments.

内容概要

  本书集荣获2004年度美国语言学会布龙菲尔德图书奖(Leonard Bloomfield Book Award of the Linguistic Society of America)的《剑桥英语语法》(The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language) (2002) 之精华,在语言学理论的基础上对语法范畴和语法规则作了科学、系统、严谨的分析及阐释,质疑和批判了许多传统语法观,提出了一些新观念。适用英语教师,英语专业研究生及本科生阅读。本书:  语言通俗易懂,分析深入浅出,且各章均附习题;  提供网络支持;  在语言学理论的基础上对语法作了全面而科学的解读;  质疑和批判了某些传统语法观念;  可提高学生的语言技能,为深入学习语言学知识打下坚定基础。

作者简介

  罗德尼·赫德尔斯顿,语言学教授,主要执教于澳大利亚昆士兰大学,澳大利亚人文学院院士。  杰弗里·K. 普尔曼,美国加利福尼亚大学圣克鲁斯分校语言学教授,人文学科杰出教授,美国艺术与科学院院士。

书籍目录

Notational conventionsPreface1 Introduction2 A rapid overview3 Verbs, tense, complements, and adjuncts4 Clause structure, complements, and adjuncts5 Nouns and noun phrases6 Adjectives and adverbs7 Prepositions and preposition phrases8 Negation and related phenomena9 Clause type: asking, exclaiming, and directing10 Subordination and content clauses11 Relative clauses12 Grade and comparison13 Non-finite clauses and clauses without verbs14 Coordination and more15 Information packaging in the clause16 Morphology: words and lexemesFurther readingGlossaryIndex

编辑推荐

  《剑桥学生英语语法》集荣获2004年度美国语言学会布龙菲尔德图书奖(Leonard Bloomfield Book Award of the Linguistic Society of America)的《剑桥英语语法》(The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language) (2002) 之精华,在语言学理论的基础上对语法范畴和语法规则作了科学、系统、严谨的分析及阐释,质疑和批判了许多传统语法观,提出了一些新观念。适用英语教师,英语专业研究生及本科生阅读。

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  •       语法小记
      
      一、
      1. English language: 1) Standard English: ①formal style;②informal style
       2) Non-standard English
      
       2. Approches to grammar: 1)descriptive approches
       2)prescriptive approches、
      
       3. Syntax, morphology have to do with the grammatical form of sentence, while semantics not.
      
       4. Two kinds of sentence: 1) clausal sentences——having the form of a clause
       2)compound sentences——having the form of a coordination of clauses
      
       5. clause: subject+predicate phrase: 1)noun phrase 2)verb phrase
      Lexeme 词位
      
       6. The parts of speech: 1) noun (including pronouns)
       2) verb
       3) adjective function: ①attributive ②predicative
       4)determinatives
       5)adverb function: as modifiers of verbs, adjectives, adverbs
       6)propositions
       7)coordinator 并列词
       8)subordinators 主从词 7)+ 8) =conjunction
      
       7. canonical clause: 1)positive 肯定句 2) declarative 陈述句 3) main clause 主句 4) non-coodinate
       8. words: 1)bases
       2)affixes: prefixes+suffixes
      
      二、
       1. verb paradigm: 1)primary forms(有时式): ①preterite: past tense 过去时
       (have tense inflection) ②3rd singular present
       ③plain present
       2)secondary forms(无时式): ①plain form 素形,原形
       (no tense inflecyion) ②gerund-participle 动名词
       ③past participle 过去分词
      
       2. verb form
      plain form: 1)imperative; 2)subjunctive; 3) infinitival: to-infinitivals;bare infinitivals 不定式
      
       3. Finite clause: 1)primary forms
       2)imperative
      3)subjunctive 2) and 3) are plain form
      Non-finite clause: 1)infinitival不定式
       2)gerund-participle
       3)past participle:-ed participle;-ing participle
      
      
      三、
       1.tense时,aspect 态,mood 语气,voice式
      
       2.verb:1)auxiliary verb:①modal:can,may,must,will
       ②non-modal:be,have,do,dare,need
      
      3.primary tense:1)preterite:①past time ②modal remoteness:the modal preterite,the cases not presented factual associated with modality,not time ③backshift:in indirect reported speech
      
      4.aspect态:1)perfective完成态 2)imperfective 非完成态,即progressive
      An aspect:its main use is to indicate how the speakers views the situation described in the clause with respect not to its location in time but to its temperal structure or properties.
      
      5.perfect:1)present perfect 2)preterite perfect:①past time
       ②modal remoteness
       ③backshift
      
      6.use of the modal auxiliaries: 1)espistamic认知 2)denotic 义务 3)dynamic 动力
      
      
      四、
       1.one clause can have clause structure:1)subject 2)predicate:①predicator ②object:O(d),O(i) ③complement ④adjunct 附语
      
       2.1)predicator:has to be licensed by the particular head verb
      2)Complement: (补语:谓语所要求的语句成分)a kind of dependent that must be licensed by the head
      3)Adjunct:附语:可选的语句
      
      3. The four properties of subject:1)basic position before the verb
       2)case: in nominative case
       3)verb agreement
       4)subject-auxiliary inversion
      
      4. Diret and indirect objects: O(d), O(i)
       When they co-occur in canonical clauses,the O(i)precedes O(d).
      Sue gave Max the photo. Single underline:O(i);doubled—underline:O(d)
       Sue gave the photo to Max. Single underline:O(d);doubled—underline:O(i)
      
      5. The syntactic differences between PC and Objects: 1)PC can have the form of Adjp while O can’t. 2)PC can have the form of a bare role NP. 3)PC does not coresspond to the subject of a passive clause.
      
      6. Five canonical clause structure:1)S-P
       2)S-P-PC
       3)S-P-O(d)
       4)S-P-O(d)-PC
       5)S-P-O(i)-O(d)
      
      
      五、
       1.Three main types of dependent in the structure of NP:1) determiners: 限定词①definitive ②indefinite
       2) complements
       3) modifiers
      
       2. Subclasses of noun:1) prnouns:distinguish from other two by its inability to take determiners as dependent
       2) proper nouns
       3) common nouns
      
       3. determinative phrase: a determinative with dependents function as the head of a phrase.
       Definite article: the——indicate that the head of the NP is considered sufficient in the context to identify the referent.
      indefinite article: a
      
      4. Pronouns: 1)personal 2)reciprocal 3)interrogative 疑问代词4)relative 关系代词
       Two uses of pronouns: 1) deictic 指示 2)anaphoric 回指 3)antecedent
      
      5. Choice of a singular human pronoun without sex specification: they, in a secondary use that is interpreted semantically as singular.
      1)Everyone’s here,aren’t they?
      2)We need a manager who is reasonably flexible in their approch.
      
      6.Personal noun:1)non-reflexive case form:①Nominative 主格;Accusative 宾格 ②Genitive 所有格:dependent and independent
       2)reflexive
      Case 格
      
      7. NP:1)determiner:determinative
       2)head:nominal ①head:noun ②modifier
      
      
      六、
       1.Distinctive properties of prototypical adjectives:1)function:attributive;predicative; 2)grade:plain,comparative and superlative 3)modification、
      
       2.1)gradable adjectives:have comparative and superlative forms and take degree modifiers
      2)non-gradable
      
      3.The structure of adjective phrases:1)head
       2)dependents:complements or modifiers
      
      
      
      七、
       1. The traditional class of prepositions前置词:1)they take NPs as complement
       (not essential)
       2)no inflection
       3)meaning:relations in space or time
       4)function:head of wide range of dependent
      2.Function:dependent of 1)noun;2)verb;3)be
       3.She went aboard.
       He sat outside. Propostion,not adverb.
      
      
      八、
       Negation:1)subclausal negation:use prefixes
       2)clause negation:vebal negation;non-verbal nagation
      
      
      九、
       1. Main clause type characteristic speech act
      1)declarative making a statement
      2)close interrogative asking a close question
      3)open interrogative asking an open question
      4)exclamative making an exclamatory statement
      5)imperative issuing a directive
      
       2. Interrogative:1)closed interrogative:polar questions;alternative questions
       2)open interrogative
      
       3. Exclamative what and how
       Exclamative what has the syntax of an adjective,eg. What a car that was?
       Exclamative how is invariably an adverb,eg. How they deceived us?
      
      
      十、
       1. Three major subclasses of finite subordinate clause:1)relative clause定语从句
       2)comparative clause
       3)content clause名词性从句
      2.Content clause:1)declarative content clause
       2)interrogative content clause
       3)exclamative content clause
      Traditionally,名词性从句包括:主语从句,同位语从句,宾语从句,形容词从句。
      
      3. Relative clause:a special kind of subordinate clause whose primary function is
      as a modifier to a noun or a nominal.
       Relative clause:1)wh relatives:who,whose,which,when,where,why
       2)non-wh relatives:that relative and bare relative
      The relationship between relative pronouns and antecedents is anaphora.
      
      4. 1)Integrated relatives整合性关系从句:not marked off by commas
       2)supplement relative 增补性关系从句
      The differences between them:① intonation and punctuation——phonological facts
       ② interpretation——semantic facts
       ③ syntax
      
      Traditionally, 1)restrictive relatives 限定性关系从句
       2)non-restrictive relatives 非限定性关系从句
      
      
      十一、
       1.Grade:1)plain forms; 2)comparative forms; 3)superlative forms
       Comparison:comparison between a primary term and a secondary term
      
       2. more/less as a 1)determinative——inflectional form of many/little
       2)adverb
      
       3. comparative clause(usually finite):a kind of subordinate clause functioning as complement to that,as or like and expressing one of the two terms in
      a comparison.
      
       4. Differences from two other subordinate clause:comparative clause is obligatorily reduced in certain ways relative to the structure of main clauses.
      
      
      十二、
      1. Four kinds of non-finite clause(非定式语句):1)gerund-participial
       2) past participial
       3) to- infinitival to
       4) bare infinitival 光杆不定式 3)and 4) are infinitival clauses 不定语句
      
      2. Non-finite clauses contains a predicate that has the form of a VP headed by a secondary form of the verb. They do not have primary tense.
      
       3. Subjectless non-finites: most of the non-finite clauses have no understood suject.
       Subjectless non-finites:1) syntactic determination——given a understood subject
       2) no syntactic determination——not given a understood subject
      
      3. Non-finite clauses functioning as adjunct: dangling modifiers/participles
      
      
      十三、
      1. Coordination is a non-headed construction
      Coordinators: and, or, but.
      
       2. Distinctive syntactic properties of coordinators:
      1) unlimited number of coordinator
       2) coordinates must be syntactically similar
      A coordination of X and Y is admissible at a given place in sentence structure if and only if each of X and Y is individually admissible at that place with the same function.
       3) impossibility of preposing an expanded coodinate.
      
      
      十四、
       1.Information-packaging constructions:1) passive construction
       2) extraposition construction
       3) existential construction
      
      2. Passive clause
       The system of voice:1) active voice——the default in the voice system
       2) pasive voice
       In English there is a broad perference for packaging information so that subject reprensent old information.
      
      Informal style:1)be-passive;2)get-passive;3)bare-passive
      
      3. extraposition外置:a clause construction which prototypically has dummy it as subject and a postbverbal subordinate clause.
      1)subject extraposition 主语外置
       2)internal complement extraposition 内部补语外置(宾语外置)
      It disturbs her that he was acquitted.形式主语
      I find it disappointing that he gave up.形式宾语
      
      4. existential clauses:1)bare existentials
       dummy there 2)extended existentials:contain an additional element
      
      5. the it-cleft construction It分裂构造强调句
      
      
      十五、
      1. Morphology 形位学 1) inflectional morphology—ties in mainly with syntax
       2) lexical morphology —mainly revelent to the content of the dictionary
      
      2. inflectional morphology
      morphological operations:1)suffixation take—takes
       2)modification take—took
      
      3. consontant doubling
      The final consontant letter of the base is doubled if
      1)doubling occurs before suffixes beginning with a vowel—stopped,stopping,fatter
      2)base ends in single consontant
      3)consontant letter follows single-letter vowel symbol
      4)stress on final syllable
      
  •     wa
 

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